Silvio Berlusconi has won the budget vote but lost his majority in the Italian parliament, posing questions on his future as leader of Italy.
According to reports, 309 votes were cast, with 308 in favour and one abstention.
Italian opposition parties attended the vote to ensure it was legal, but did not participate in the voting session.
Italian newspaper La Repubblica reports that 321 members did not vote.
Leader of the opposition Pier Luigi Bersani called on Berlusconi to quit in the Italian parliament, after he lost his majority.
Berlusconi had already been deserted by coalition partner Umberto Bossi, leader of the Lega Nord.